LiFePO4 电池(磷酸铁锂电池)


Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries have gained significant attention in recent years. It has exceptional performance and safety features. It’s an advanced rechargeable energy storage technology now. LiFePO4 battery offers several advantages over traditional lithium-ion batteries. In this article, we will explore the aspects of it. Include characteristics, voltage, charger, and lifespan, and compare LiFePO4 batteries with lithium-ion counterparts.

Characteristics of LiFePO4 battery

LiFePO4 battery is famous for its unique properties and advantages. When compared to other lithium-ion battery chemistry. Here are some key characteristics of LiFePO4 batteries :

  • High Energy Density: LiFePO4 battery offers a high energy density. Thus, It can store a significant amount of energy in a compact and lightweight form.
  • Enhanced Safety: LiFePO4 battery is safer than other lithium-ion battery types. Because of their stable chemistry. Chemistry is less prone to thermal runaway or combustion, even under extreme conditions.
  • Longer Lifespan: LiFePO4 battery has a longer lifespan. hence compared to many other lithium-ion battery chemistry. They can withstand a higher number of charge-discharge cycles without significant capacity degradation. Hence, making them more durable and cost-effective over time.
  • High Discharge Rate: LiFePO4 battery can deliver high discharge currents. It makes them suitable for applications. Because the applications need a burst of power or high-performance output.
  • Wide Temperature Range: LiFePO4 battery can operate over a wide temperature range. Thus, it makes them more versatile and reliable in various environmental conditions.
  • Environmental Friendliness: LiFePO4 battery is more friendly. When compared to some other lithium-ion battery chemistry. Because they do not contain hazardous materials such as cobalt or heavy metals.

Due to their unique properties, People use LiFePO4 batteries in applications. The application focuses on safety, longevity, and high discharge rates.

Voltage of LiFePO4 battery

The voltage of a lithium iron phosphate battery is an important characteristic. The voltage determines its electrical potential and compatibility with various applications. LiFePO4 battery has a nominal voltage of 3.2 V per cell.

For example, Four cells compose a nominal voltage 12V LiFePO4 battery. Connect cells in series, where each cell has a voltage of 3.2V. A LiFePO4 battery with a nominal voltage of 24V would consist of eight cells in series. A battery with a nominal voltage of 48V would comprise sixteen cells in series.

Here is the voltage chart:

Charging Voltage3.5-3.65V14.2-14.6V28.4V-29.2V56.8-58.4V
Float Voltage3.2V13.6V27.2V54.4V
Max Voltage3.65V14.6V29.2V58.4V
Min Voltage2.5V10V20V40V
Nominal Voltage3.2V12V/12.8V24V/25.6V48V/51.2V

Charger of LiFePO4 battery

A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery charger is safe and efficient. LiFePO4 battery has unique charging requirements. A designed charger for them helps optimize their performance, lifespan, and safety.

Here are some key details about LiFePO4 battery chargers:

  • Charging Voltage:  The LiFePO4 battery requires a precise charging voltage. To ensure both safety and efficiency during the charging process. The charging voltage for LiFePO4 batteries ranges from 3.6 to 3.7V per cell during the bulk charging phase. It is crucial to use an appropriate charger that supports these voltage specifications. Additionally, avoiding overcharging or undercharging is essential. It can impact the battery’s performance and lifespan.
  • Charging Current:  LiFePO4 batteries can handle high charging currents. It enables faster charging compared to certain other lithium-ion battery chemistry. The battery manufacturer specifies the charging current. The current should fall within the recommended range. It is crucial to select the correct charger. While taking into account the battery’s capacity and charging specifications. This ensures optimal charging performance and helps maintain the battery’s longevity.
  • Charging Stages: LiFePO4 battery chargers usually incorporate many charging stages. It can optimize the charging process. Common charging stages include bulk charging, absorption charging, and float charging. Bulk charging delivers the initial charge until a certain voltage is reachable. Absorption charging brings the battery to its full capacity. while maintaining a controlled voltage. Float charging maintains a lower voltage to keep the battery charged without overcharging.
  • Safety Features: LiFePO4 battery chargers often include safety features. As a result, it protects against overcharging, overcurrent, and short circuits. These features may include voltage and current monitoring, temperature monitoring, and automatic shutoff. when the battery is chargeable or when certain safety thresholds are beyond limits. It’s important to choose the correct charger. Then ensure the safe and reliable charging of LiFePO4 batteries.
  • Compatibility and Charging Modes: LiFePO4 battery chargers may support various charging modes. such as constant current (CC) mode and constant voltage (CV) mode. The charger should be compatible with the specific LiFePO4 battery. especially, considering its voltage, capacity, and recommended charging parameters.

When selecting a LiFePO4 battery charger, it is crucial to choose the designed one. The charger meets the requirements of your specific battery model. Otherwise, It will result in improper charging, reduced performance, and potential safety risks.

Always follow the manufacturer’s guidelines and recommendations for charging your LiFePO4 batteries. And ensure that the charger is compatible with the battery’s specifications.

Lifespan of LiFePO4 battery

It refers to its expected operational life before its capacity degrades. LiFePO4 battery is famous for its long lifespan. compared to many other lithium-ion battery chemistries. Several factors influence the lifespan of LiFePO4 batteries. Hence,  understanding them can help maximize their longevity. Here are some important details:

  • Cycle Life: LiFePO4 batteries have a high cycle life. They can withstand a large number of charge-discharge cycles without significant capacity degradation. A well-designed and maintained LiFePO4 battery can last for thousands of cycles. Generally, LiFePO4 batteries can endure from 2000 to 7000 cycles or more. It depends on factors. For example, 1. the specific battery model, depth of discharge (DoD) 2. charging and discharging parameters 3. operating temperature 4. battery management.
  • Depth of Discharge: It has a significant impact on the lifespan of LiFePO4 batteries. Shallower discharge cycles can contribute to a longer lifespan. Generally, limit the depth of discharge of LiFePO4 batteries to around 80% or less. To maximize their longevity. Deep discharges can reduce the lifespan of LiFePO4 batteries.
  • Charging and Discharging Parameters: Proper parameters are crucial. It can maximize the lifespan of LiFePO4 batteries. LiFePO4 batteries enjoy controlled charging and discharging rates within the manufacturer’s recommended limits. Fast operations at high currents can generate heat and stress. It will reduce its lifespan. It is important to follow the manufacturer’s guidelines and specifications. Follow charging and discharging rates to ensure optimal performance and longevity.
  • Temperature Considerations: Operating temperatures can impact the lifespan of LiFePO4 batteries. High temperatures can speed up chemical reactions within the battery. As a result, It will be faster capacity degradation and reduced lifespan. It is advisable to operate LiFePO4 batteries within the recommended temperature range. To ensure optimal performance and longevity. We should avoid extreme temperature conditions, both high and low.
  • Battery Management Systems (BMS):  A BMS helps to track and control various aspects of the battery. Including charging, discharging, temperature, and cell balancing. A well-implemented BMS ensures proper voltage and current regulation. It prevents overcharging and over-discharging, and balances cell voltages. and provides protection, thereby,  extending the lifespan of the LiFePO4 battery.
  • Storage Conditions: Choose proper storage conditions. It can preserve the lifespan of LiFePO4 batteries. If the battery is not in use, please store it in a cool, dry environment. with a partial charge (around 40-60% of the capacity). Besides, inspect and recharge stored LiFePO4 batteries. It can prevent deep discharge and maintain their health.

Lithium iron phosphate battery VS. Lithium-Ion

They are both types of rechargeable batteries used in various applications. While they share similarities, they also have distinct characteristics. Here’s a detailed comparison between LiFePO4 batteries and Li-ion batteries:

FeatureLiFePO4 BatteryLi-ion Battery
ChemistryLithium Iron PhosphateLithium Cobalt Oxide/Lithium Manganese Oxide/Other
Energy DensityLowerHigher
Cycle LifeLongerVariable




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